Integrated Optics and Photonics ( Optical Communication ) MCQs – Optical Communication MCQs

Integrated Optics and Photonics ( Optical Communication ) MCQs – Optical Communication MCQs

Latest Optical Communication MCQs

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Optical Communication MCQs – Integrated Optics and Photonics ( Optical Communication ) MCQs

The most occurred mcqs of Integrated Optics and Photonics ( ) in past papers. Past papers of Integrated Optics and Photonics ( Optical Communication ) Mcqs. Past papers of Integrated Optics and Photonics ( Optical Communication ) Mcqs . Mcqs are the necessary part of any competitive / job related exams. The Mcqs having specific numbers in any written test. It is therefore everyone have to learn / remember the related Integrated Optics and Photonics ( Optical Communication ) Mcqs. The Important series of Integrated Optics and Photonics ( Optical Communication ) Mcqs are given below:

Integrated Optics and Photonics Technologies

1. Integrated technology for optical devices are developed within optical fiber communication.
a) True
b) False
Answer: a
Explanation: Integration of optical devices enable fabrication of the whole system onto a single chip. Integration of such devices has become a confluence of several optical terms.

2. When both active and passive devices are integrated on a single chip, in multilayered form, then these devices are known as _____________
a) IP devices
b) IO devices
c) Wavelength converters
d) Optical parametric amplifiers
Answer: a
Explanation: IP technology enables fabrication of subsystems and systems. This is all realized on a single substrate. The integration on a single chip is done in IP technology.’

3. _________ is a further enhancement of ________
a) IP, IO
b) IO, IP
c) IO, wavelength converters
d) IP, wavelength converters
Answer: a
Explanation: IP seems to be a miniaturization process and integration of optical systems on a single chip. IO devices are formed when both active and passive elements are interconnected. Thus, IP is a developed version of IO.

4. Thin transparent dielectric layers on planar substrates are used in _________ and ______ devices.
a) Wavelength converters and amplification devices
b) IP and IO
c) IP and wavelength converters
d) IO and amplification devices
Answer: b
Explanation: IP and IO provide an alternative to conversion of optical signal back to electrical signal. Thin transparent dielectric layers act as optical waveguides to produce small-scale and miniature circuits.

5. __________ did not make significant contribution to earlier optical fiber systems.
a) IO
b) IP
c) Wavelength amplifiers
d) Couplers
Answer: a
Explanation: IO is based on single mode optical waveguides. Thus it is incompatible with multimode fiber systems. Thus, IO has less importance than IP.

6. Side or edge-emitting or conducting optical devices cannot be integrated on same substrate.
a) True
b) False
Answer: b
Explanation: In serial integration of device, different elements of optical chip can be interconnected in a consecutive manner. Thus, integration of side or edge emitting optical devices can be done on a single substrate.

7. Hybrid ________ integration demands _________ IP circuits to be produced on a single substrate.
a) IP, single-layered
b) IO, multilayered
c) IP, multilayered
d) IO, multilayered
Answer: c
Explanation: To gain control of optical signals, elements can be directly attached to IP circuit. Both active and passive devices should be on the same substrate. To make devices compatible with 3d structures of other IP/IO devices, hybrid IP integration demands multilayered IP circuits.

8. Using SOI integration technique __________ components can be coupled to IP devices.
a) Passive
b) Layered
c) Demounted
d) Active
Answer: d
Explanation: SOI is used to produce micro-waveguide bends and couplers thereby maintaining compatibility with silicon fabrication techniques. Thus, active components like optical sources, detectors can be coupled to other IP devices using SOI technique.

9. Who invented the IO technology?
a) Albert Einstein
b) Anderson
c) M.S Clarke
d) Robert
Answer: b
Explanation: The birth of IO can be traced back to the basic ideas outlined by Anderson in 1966. He suggested the micro-fabrication technology which in turn led to the term integrated optics in 1969.

10. Electronic circuits have a practical limitation on speed of operation at a frequency of around _________
a) 1010Hz
b) 1012Hz
c) 1014Hz
d) 1011Hz
Answer: a
Explanation: The speed of operation of electronic devices or circuits results from their use of metallic conductors to transport electronic charges and build up signals. It has a limitation to speed of operation of frequency around 1010Hz.

11. The use of light as an electromagnetic wave of high frequency provides high speed operation around ____________ times the conceivable employing electronic circuits.
a) 108Hz
b) 105Hz
c) 106Hz
d) 104Hz
Answer: d
Explanation: The use of light with its property as an electromagnetic wave offers the possibility of high speed operation. For this, the frequency should be high as 1014to 1015Hz.

12. How many layers are possessed by waveguide structures of silica-on-silicon(SOS)?
a) Two
b) Three
c) Four
d) One
Answer: b
Explanation: The SOS is a part of IP technology. The waveguide structures provided by it comprises of three layers. They are buffer, the core and the cladding.

13. The ________________ is a versatile solution-based technique for making ceramic and glass materials.
a) SOL gel process
b) SSL gel process
c) SDL gel process
d) SAML gel process
Answer: a
Explanation: The SOL gel process involves the transition of system from a liquid to a gel. The SOL gel process along with SOS technique is used for the fabrication of ceramic fibers, film coatings and waveguide based optical amplifiers.

Planar Waveguides and Integrated Optical Devices

1. Optical fiber communications uses _______ dielectric waveguide structures for confining light.
a) Rectangular
b) Circular
c) Triangular
d) Planar
Answer: b
Explanation: The use of circular dielectric waveguide structures is universally acceptable. This has been a boon for optical fibre communications.

2. __________ waveguide is formed when the film is sandwiched by layers of different refractive index.
a) Planar
b) Circular
c) Asymmetric
d) Symmetric
Answer: c
Explanation: When the film is sandwiched between layers of same refractive index, symmetric waveguide is formed. Owing to the different refractive index, asymmetry is observed and hence asymmetric waveguide is formed.

3. When the dimensions of the guide are reduced, the number of ___________ also decreases.
a) Propagating nodes
b) Electrons
c) Holes
d) Volume of photons
Answer: a
Explanation: The dimensions of the guide are directly proportional to the number of propagating nodes. As the dimensions are reduced, the number of propagating nodes also decreases.

4. What does hff stands for in the equation hff = h+x+x2?
a) Frequency of layer
b) Diameter of curve
c) Effective guide layer thickness
d) Space propagation
Answer: c
Explanation: In the above equation, h is the height, x and x2 are the evanescent field penetration depths. hff Denotes the effective guided layer thickness.

5. ___________ waveguides are plagued by high losses.
a) Circular
b) Planar
c) Depleted
d) Metal-clad
Answer: d
Explanation: All suitable waveguide materials are subject to limitations in the confinement. However, metal-clad waveguides are not so limited. Hence, they are plagued by high losses.

6. The planar waveguides may be fabricated from glasses and other isotropic materials such as ___________ and ______________
a) Octane and polymers
b) Carbon monoxide and diode
c) Fluorides and carbonates
d) Sulphur dioxide and polymers
Answer: d
Explanation: These materials are isotropic. However, their properties do not affect the fabrication of planar waveguides. Their properties cannot be controlled by external energy sources.

7. Which of the following devices are less widely used in the field of optical fibre communications?
a) Acousto-optic devices
b) Regenerators
c) Reflectors
d) Optical translators
Answer: a
Explanation: Acousto-optic devices are less widely used, mainly in the area of field deflection. Regenerators, reflectors form a base for the optical fibre communications.

8. Which of the following materials have refractive index near two?
a) GA As
b) Zinc
c) InP
d) AlSb
Answer: b
Explanation: Two basic groups are distinguished on the basis of the respective refractive indices near two and near three. GaAs, InP, AlSb have refractive indices near 3.

9. Passive devices are fabricated by __________ technique.
a) Fassbinder
b) High density integration
c) Radio-frequency sputtering
d) Lithium implantation
Answer: c
Explanation: Passive devices’ fabrication comes mainly from microelectronics industry. Radio frequency sputtering is used to deposit thin films of glass onto glass substrates.

10. Strip pattern in waveguide structures is obtained through ____________
a) Lithography
b) Cryptography
c) Depletion of holes
d) Implantation
Answer: a
Explanation: Field strength is an important aspect when it comes to strip patterns in waveguide structures. The electron and laser beam lithography is used to obtain stripe pattern in waveguide structures.

11. Propagation losses in slab and strip waveguides are smaller than the single mode fibre losses.
a) True
b) False
Answer: b
Explanation: The losses are in the range of 0.1 to 0.3 dB/cm. In case of slab and stripe waveguides, the losses are much higher whereas in case of single-mode fibres, they are much less.

12. A passive Y-junction beam splitter is fabricated from __________
a) GaAs
b) ZnS
c) AlbS
d) LiNbO3
Answer: d
Explanation: A passive Y-junction splitter is used to combine signals from separate sources or to divide a signal into two or more channels. It is fabricated from the waveguide materials such as LiNbO3.

13. A passive Y-junction beam splitter is also used as a switch.
a) True
b) False
Answer: a
Explanation: A passive junction beam splitter finds application where equal power division of the incident beam is required. It can be used as a switch if it is fabricated from an electro-optic material.


Optical Amplification, Wavelength Conversion And Regeneration MCQs


14. The linear variation of refractive index with the electric field is known as the ________
a) Linear implantation
b) Ionization
c) Koppel effect
d) Pockels effect
Answer: d
Explanation: The change in refractive index is related by the applied field via the linear and quadratic electro-optic coefficients. The variation of R.I with the electric field is known as Pockels effect.

15. Planar waveguides are used to produce _______ coupler.
a) MMI
b) CMI
c) Frequency
d) Differential
Answer: a
Explanation: MMI couplers are abbreviated as Multimode interference couplers. These are similar to fused fibre couplers. These are easily produced by using planar waveguides.

Optoelectronic Integration and Photonic Integrated Circuits

1. Monolithic integration for optical sources are confined to the use of __________ semiconductors.
a) Ⅲ-Ⅴ
b) Ⅱ-Ⅲ
c) Ⅰ-Ⅱ
d) Ⅶ-Ⅷ
Answer: a
Explanation: Ⅲ-Ⅴ semiconductor compounds are much useful. They possess both optical and electronic properties. These properties can be exploited to produce high performance devices.

2. Circuits fabricated from GaAs or AlGaAs operate in wavelength region of __________
a) 0.1 and 0.2 μm
b) 0.8 and 0.9 μm
c) 0.4 and 0.6 μm
d) 0.6 and 0.7 μm
Answer: b
Explanation: Circuits fabricated from GaAs use injection laser which is fabricated on GaAs with a MESFET. This is used to bias and modulate the laser.

3. The OEICs realization __________ as compared to the other developments in IO.
a) Scripted
b) Decreased
c) Lagged behind
d) Increased
Answer: c
Explanation: IO devices use dielectric materials such as lithium niobate. This lagging behind is caused by inherent difficulties in fabrication of OEICs even if Ⅲ-Ⅴ semiconductors are used.

4. Compositional and structural differences between photonic and electronic devices __________
a) Provide high efficiency
b) Provide low efficiency
c) Highly used
d) Create problems
Answer: d
Explanation: Compositional and structural differences cause epitaxial crystal growth, planarization for lithography, electrical interconnections. They also cause thermal and chemical stability of materials, electric matching and heat dissipation.

5. To avoid large chip __________ devices are used.
a) InGaAsP
b) InGa
c) GaAs
d) InGaAs
Answer: a
Explanation: To avoid large chip, InGaAsP devices are used with directly modulated semiconductor lasers. This gives good dynamic characteristics at 40 Gbit/s at 1.55 μmwavelength.

6. Devices operating at transmission rates greater than 40 Gb/s are _________
a) GaAs and InP
b) GaAs
c) InGa
d) InGaAs
Answer: a
Explanation: Optoelectronic integrated circuits are based on heterojunction bipolar transistor and electron mobility transistor use GaAs and InP. These are capable of operating at transmission rates higher than 40 Gb/s.

7. HEMT based __________ have a spot-size convertor with a photodiode.
a) p-n junction diode
b) p-i-n photoreceiver
d) BJT
Answer: b
Explanation: P-I-N photoreceiver comprises of spot-size convertor with a photodiode. Spot-size convertor increases fiber alignment tolerances by one order of magnitude. This enables use of cleaved instead of lensed fiber.

8. P-I-N photoreceiver based on HEMT is integrated with _________ guiding layers.
a) GaAs and InP
b) GaAs
c) InGa
d) InGaAsP
Answer: d
Explanation: P-I-N photoreceiver is integrated with InGaAsP guiding layers. In this HEMT based technology, InGaAsP provides more confinement.

9. An optical power splitter integrated with optical waveguide amplifier is more useful.
a) True
b) False
Answer: a
Explanation: The aim of optical waveguide amplifier is to reduce the number of amplifiers in system. Alongwith, it also reaches maximum number of nodes.

10. The use of intelligent optical switches is necessary.
a) False
b) True
Answer: b
Explanation: Most applications of OEICs in optical networks require large switching capacity to support a large number of WDM channels. This also provides control of both optical signal wavelength and signal power.

11. The wafer scale replication technology uses ____________
a) SOL gel
b) GaAs
c) InGa
d) InGaAsP
Answer: a
Explanation: Replication technology employs hot embossing, molding and ultraviolet lithography. Ultraviolet curable SOL gel enables refractive and diffractive micro-optical elements to be replicated directly on glass substrates.

12. ___________ is useful for production of both planar micro-optical elements and stacked optical microsystems.
a) Wavelength amplifier
b) Wavelength convertor
c) Replication technology
d) Optical switching matrix
Answer: c
Explanation: SOL gel materials used in replication technology allows combination of replication with lithography. This leaves selected areas material-free for sawing and bunding.

13. Optical interconnection between optoelectronic device is achieved in _________
a) Wavelength amplifier
b) Wavelength convertor
c) Replication technology
d) Chip-to-chip interconnection
Answer: d
Explanation: The chip-to-chip interconnection of optical components have a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser. These are assembled in micro-trenches in which embedded electrodes are connected through passive junction of poliver waveguide on alignment pits.

14. Multilevel interconnections are incorporated in _______
a) PIC
b) AWG based coupler
c) Convertors
d) OEIC technologies
Answer: a
Explanation: PIC reduces the overall size of optical functions. This causes the interconnection of several modules growing on same substrate.

15. When there is M number of WDM channels present at N input ports, then the output port 1 produces a _________
a) CW signal
b) WDM signal
c) Amplified signal
d) Distorted signal
Answer: b
Explanation: The reconstituted spectrum of WDM signal at any output port consists of a different set of wavelength channels with at least one wavelength channel from each input port producing a WDM signal having wavelength signal from each of input ports.

Optical Bistability, Digital Optics and Optical Computation

1. ___________ provides a series of optical processing functions.
a) Wavelength convertors
b) Wavelength amplifiers
c) Detectors
d) Bi-stable optical devices
Answer: d
Explanation: Optical bi-stable devices include optical logic and memory elements, A-D convertors. Their response to light is nonlinear giving the basis of optical communication.

2. ___________ comprise of Fabry-Perot cavity.
a) Wavelength convertors
b) Wavelength amplifiers
c) Bi-stable optical devices
d) Detectors
Answer: c
Explanation: Fabry-Perot cavity consists of a material in which there are variations in refractive index with optical intensity. These variations are nonlinear giving rise to bistability.

3. The optical path length in nonlinear medium is integer number of ______ wavelength.
a) Half
b) Double
c) Three-fourth
d) Single
Answer: a
Explanation: Fabry-Perot cavity exhibits a sharp resonance to optical power passing into and through it. This is achieved when optical path length is integer number of half wavelength in nonlinear medium.

4. As compared to laser, the value of _________ in the cavity controls the optical transmission.
a) Amplification
b) Refractive index
c) Rectification
d) Reflection
Answer: b
Explanation: The refractive index value in the Fabry-Perot cavity controls the optical transmission. This provides high optical output on resonance and low optical output off resonance.

5. ___________ are able to latch between two distinct optical states.
a) Wavelength converters
b) Wavelength amplifiers
c) Detectors
d) Bistable optical devices
Answer: d
Explanation: The transfer characteristic for Bistable optical devices exhibit two state hysteresis resulting from turning in and out of resonance. So they can be latched between two states responding to external signal acting as flip-flop.

6. __________ can act as AND, OR, NOT gate.
a) Wavelength converters
b) Wavelength amplifiers
c) Detectors
d) Bistable optical devices
Answer: d
Explanation: BOD’s exhibit 2-state hysteresis. Thus they are able to latch between two operating states (0 and 1) thereby providing logic functions.

7. _______ proves superior to _______
a) BOD’s, electronic devices
b) Electronic devices, BOD’s
c) BOD’s, convertors
d) Convertors, BOD’s
Answer: a
Explanation: There is also a thing of picosecond switching using only Pico-joules of energy. A BOD comprises of these switching properties. Thus, it proves superior to electronic devices.

8. ________ BOD’s provides optical feedback.
a) Extrinsic
b) Intrinsic
c) Detector
d) Bistable
Answer: b
Explanation: All optical or intrinsic devices which utilize a nonlinear optical medium between a pair of partially reflecting mirrors forming a nonlinear etalon in which feedback is provided optical.

9. ___________ devices employ artificial nonlinearity.
a) Extrinsic
b) Intrinsic
c) Hybrid
d) Bistable
Answer: c
Explanation: Hybrid devices have artificial nonlinearity in an electro-optic medium in the cavity. This produces variations in refractive index through electro-optic effect.

10. Hybrid devices have limited ________ speed.
a) Switching
b) Planar
c) Curvature
d) Electrical
Answer: a
Explanation: Hybrid BOD’s provides flexibility. But at the same time their switching speeds are limited by use of electrical feedback. These devices are interconnected to provide a more complex logic circuit.

11. _______ exhibit optical bistability.
a) Extrinsic lasers
b) Intrinsic lasers
c) Detectors
d) Semiconductor lasers
Answer: d
Explanation: Semiconductor lasers have optical bistability. This is due to nonlinearities in absorption, gain, dispersion, wave guiding and the selection of output polarization.

12. ___________ is fabricated with tandem electrode.
a) Full convertor
b) Semiconductor
c) Detector diode
d) Bistable laser diode
Answer: d
Explanation: Bistable laser diode is fabricated with tandem electrode. The tandem electrode provides two gain sections. Also it has a loss region between them.

13. Optical pulsing can be obtained using _________
a) BODs
b) WDM
c) Detector
d) Semiconductor
Answer: a
Explanation: BODs with a very narrow bi-stable loop can provide optical pulsing. This type of device can be used to shape, clean up and amplify a noisy input pulse.

14. A weak second beam is introduced in _________
a) BOD differential amplifier
b) WDM
c) Detector
d) Semiconductor laser
Answer: a
Explanation: A weak second beam in BOD differential amplifier is introduced into the nonlinear optical cavity. This is used to control the resonance and transmission of the main beam through effects of its own stored energy.

Integrated Optics and Photonics ( Optical Communication ) MCQs – Optical Communication MCQs

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