Up To Date Optical Networks ( Optical Communication ) MCQs – Optical Communication MCQs
Latest Optical Communication MCQs
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Optical Communication MCQs – Optical Networks ( Optical Communication ) MCQs
The most occurred mcqs of Optical Networks ( ) in past papers. Past papers of Optical Networks ( Optical Communication ) Mcqs. Past papers of Optical Networks ( Optical Communication ) Mcqs . Mcqs are the necessary part of any competitive / job related exams. The Mcqs having specific numbers in any written test. It is therefore everyone have to learn / remember the related Optical Networks ( Optical Communication ) Mcqs. The Important series of Optical Networks ( Optical Communication ) Mcqs are given below:
Optical Network Concepts
1. Each stage of information transfer is required to follow the fundamentals of ____________
a) Optical interconnection
b) Optical hibernation
c) Optical networking
d) Optical regeneration
Explanation: Optical networking uses optical fiber as a transmission medium. It provides a connection between users to enable them to communicate with each other by transporting information from a source to a destination.
2. ____________ is a multi-functional element of optical network.
b) Optical node
d) Optical attenuation
Explanation: An optical node is a multi-functional element which acts as a transceiver unit capable of receiving, transmitting and processing the optical signal. The optical nodes are interconnected with optical fiber links.
3. A signal carried on a dedicated wavelength from source to destination node is known as a ___________
a) Light path
b) Light wave
c) Light node
d) Light source
Explanation: A light path is a dedicated path from a source to a destination. The data can be sent over the light paths as soon as connections are set up. A controlling mechanism is present to control the data flow.
4. The fundamentals of optical networking are divided into _______ areas.
Explanation: The fundamentals divided into three areas contain mainly optical network terminology. The other two areas include functions and types of optical network node and switching elements and the wavelength division multiplexed optical networks.
5. The optical networking fundamentals are _____________ of the transmission techniques.
Explanation: The optical networking fundamentals include transfer of data. Irrespective of the difference in the transmission techniques, the fiber networking fundamentals remain the same.
6. The network structure formed due to the interconnectivity patterns is known as a ____________
Explanation: A topology is a combination of patterns interconnected to each other. It provides connection patterns to users at different places. It embarks on the principle of multi-usability.
7. In the __________ topology, the data generally circulates bi-directionally.
Explanation: In a bus topology, data is input via four port couplers. The couplers couples and stations the data bi-directionally and are removed from the same ports.
8. The ring and star topologies are combined in a ________ configuration.
Explanation: The mesh configuration is a combination of ring and star topologies. It is referred to as full-mesh when each network node is interconnected with all nodes in the network.
9. The full-mesh configuration is complex.
Explanation: The full-mesh topology is a combination of two or more topologies. It is often preferred for the provision of either a logical or virtual topology due to its high flexibility and interconnectivity features.
10. How many networking modes are available to establish a transmission path?
Explanation: There are two networking modes often referred to the networking. These are connection-oriented and connectionless networking modes. These include an end-to-end and bidirectional communication environment between source and destination.
11. Packet switching is also called as ___________
a) Frame switching
b) Cell switching
d) Buffer switching
Explanation: In packet or cell switching, messages are sent in small packets called cells. Cells from different sources are statistically multiplexed and are sent to the destinations.
12. ___________ mode is temporary, selective and continuous.
a) Cell switching
b) Buffer switching
d) Circuit switching
Explanation: An end-to-end connection is required for a circuit switching to take place. The transmissions are continuous and are in real time. Once the transmission is complete, the connection is ended.
13. A _______________ is a series of logical connections between the source and destination nodes.
a) Cell circuit
b) Attenuation circuit
c) Virtual circuit
d) Switched network
Explanation: A virtual circuit consists of different routes which provide connections between sending and receiving devices. These routes can change at any time and the incoming return route does not have to mirror the outgoing route.
14. ____________ refers to the process whereby a node finds one or more paths to possible destinations in a network.
Explanation: Routing refers to the path finding process in a network. In this, the control and data functions are performed to identify the route and to handle the data during the journey from source to destination.
15. How many stages are possessed by the control plane?
Explanation: The routing process called as control plane has three stages. These are neighbor discovery, topology discovery and path selection. These stages enable the network in routing mechanisms efficiently.
Optical Network Transmission Modes, Layers and Protocols
1. Electrical devices in optical network are basically used for _____________
a) Signal degradation
b) Node transfer
c) Signal control
Explanation: The optical infrastructure in networks constitutes a transparent network in which electronic devices are present. They are basically used for signal control. The other use includes providing interconnection to other networks.
2. Signals are defined as ________________ if their significant instants occur at nominally the same rate, any variation being constrained within specific limits.
Explanation: With any multiplexing strategies, come some setbacks. This includes the differentiation in the frequencies occurring throughout a network. This is called as plesiochronous transmission.
3. The bit stuffing in the plesiochronous digital hierarchy is complex and uneconomic.
Explanation: The bit stuffing is a complex process as it does not provide individual channel extraction. For individual channel extraction, the whole de-multiplexing procedure is to be performed again. This is both uneconomic and complex.
4. A ____________ digital hierarchy was required to enable the international communications network to evolve in the optical fiber era.
Explanation: The plesiochronous digital hierarchy was uneconomic and complex in execution. To reduce the complexity and efficient bit stuffing purpose, a synchronous digital hierarchy was required. It transformed the international communications into an optical fiber era.
5. The standardization towards a synchronous optical network termed SONET commenced in US in _______
Explanation: Synchronous optical network mechanism was efficient and its standardization process mainly started in 1985. Some modifications in the plesiochronous hierarchy were retained and some new features were added in the optical era to achieve efficient bit stuffing.
6. ______________ is a packetized multiplexing and switching technique which combines the benefits of circuit and packet switching.
a) Synchronous mode
b) Asynchronous transfer mode
c) Circuit packet
d) Homogeneous mode
Explanation: ATM transfers the information in fixed size units called cells. Each cell contains the information identifying the source of the transmission. It generally contains less data than packets.
7. The ___________ sits at the top of hierarchy of the OSI layer model.
a) Session layer
b) Transport layer
c) Application layer
d) Data link layer
Explanation: Application layer is the seventh layer and sits at the top of the hierarchy. It provides a means for a user to access information on or utilize the network by receiving a service.
8. The ____________ controls the dialogs between intelligent devices.
a) Physical layer
b) Transport layer
c) Application layer
d) Session layer
Explanation: The session layer is fifth in the OSI layer model. It controls the sessions between the devices and manages the connections between the remote and local application.
9. The network layer looks after the flow and error control mechanism.
Explanation: The network layer is the third level in the OSI layer model. It provides procedural and functional method for transferring data sequences from source to destination.
10. The physical layer is located at the bottom of the OSI model.
Explanation: The physical layer defines all the electrical, optical and media specifications for devices. Hence, it is located at the bottom of the OSI model. It establishes and terminates the connection between the media devices.
11. In order to access for end-to-end networking of optical channels to transparently convey information, the _____________ is employed in the OTN structure.
a) Presentation layer
b) Session layer
d) OCh layer
Explanation: The OCh stands for optical channel. It provides end-to-end access in networking of optical channels. It includes the multiplexing section to support multi-user networking.
12. An advanced type of reconfigurable OTN is referred to as an _______________
a) Automatic OTN
b) Auto-generated photon
c) Automatically switched optical network
d) Optical reimbursement
Explanation: Automatically switched optical network (ASON) is capable of switching the optical channels automatically when requested. It is specified in the ITU-T Recommendation G.8080 and it is basically a transport layer.
13. The __________ is a network layer that contains both addressing and control information to enable packets to be routed within a network.
b) Internet protocol (IP)
d) SONET/SDH protocol
Explanation: Internet protocol forms a part of the network layer. It controls the logical architecture within the network and addresses the issues accordingly. It routes the packets within a network.
14. The mapping of IP frames in SDH/SONET is accomplished in ___________ stages.
Explanation: Mapping requires three stages. In the first stage, point-to-point protocol is used. The second and the third stage includes synchronous mapping of data onto the SDH/SONET frame.
Wavelength Routing Networks
1. Which of the following is used to provide wavelength signal service among the nodes?
b) Optical enhancing
d) Pulse breakdown
Explanation: The optical layer is dependent on wavelength. The entire physical interconnected network provides wavelength signal service among the nodes using hopping technique.
2. How many types of hopping are present?
Explanation: There are two types of hopping. They are single hop and multihop. These techniques provide wavelength dependent service for interconnected physical network among the nodes.
3. How many switching layers are possessed by MG-OXC?
Explanation: An MG-OXC has three switching layers. They are wavelength cross-connect (WXC), waveband cross-connects (BXC), and fiber cross-connects (FXC). These layers help to terminate the wavebands and individual wavelength channels.
4. _____________ supports a great number of wavelength channels and reduces the number of switches within the optical network.
a) Waveband switching
b) Optical remuneration
c) Optical genesis
d) Wavelength multiplexing
Explanation: Waveband switching reduces the number of ports within the optical network. It reduces the complexity of numerous wavelength-driven channels and makes it efficient.
5. Individual wavelength channels and wavebands are terminated through ________________ layers.
a) WXC and PXC
b) WXC and FXC
c) BXC and FXC
d) WXC and BXC
Explanation: The individual wavelength channels are terminated and the terminated waveband is then de-multiplexed. The de-multiplexing is in the form of individual channels which are sent to WXC layer as inputs.
6. The routing and wavelength assignment problem addresses the core issue of _____________
a) Traffic patterns in a network
b) Wavelength adjustment
c) Wavelength continuity constraint
d) Design problem
Explanation: The routing and wavelength assignment problem includes selecting a suitable path and allocating an available wavelength. These problems fall into two categories of sequential or combinational selections.
7. How many techniques of implementation are there for routing wavelength assignment (RWA)?
Explanation: The implementation of RWA can be static and dynamic. This depends on the traffic patterns in the network. Static RWA techniques are semi-permanent and dynamic RWA techniques are random in nature.
8. ____________ deals with establishing the light path in frequently varying traffic patterns.
a) Wavelength routing
b) Wavelength multiplexing
c) Static RWA
d) Dynamic RWA
Explanation: In dynamic RWA, the traffic patterns are not known. Thus, the connection requests are initiated in random fashion. Its random nature depends on the network state at the time of request.
9. Static RWA problem is also known as _____________
a) Routing problem
b) Virtual topology problem
c) Static wavelength problem
d) Light path problem
Explanation: Static RWA problem refers to the connection problems which remain connected for a smaller duration of time. Thus, network resources are assigned to each connection. It is also called as virtual topology design problem.
10. The ___________ provides information about the physical path and wavelength assignment for all active light paths.
a) Network state
c) LAN topology
d) Secluded communication protocol
Explanation: The physical path i.e. route is associated with the routing problem. Each connection is provided with network resources to reduce complexity in functioning. The network state is basically required to provide information related to routing and assignment problems.
11. ________________ plays an important role in determining the blocking probability of a network.
a) CGA algorithm
b) Semi-pristine environment
c) RWA algorithm
d) Pass key protocol
Explanation: RWA algorithm’s efficiency is calculated on the basis of no blocking or lowest blocking probability. It also provides the information about the availability of the path between the source and destination.
12. Wavelength assignment in RWA is independent on the network topology.
Explanation: RWA algorithm deals with the wavelength assignment, physical path and blocking probability. Network topology plays a crucial role in the wavelength assignment. The network state and topology enables the RWA algorithm to function smoothly.
13. Static RWA technique is semi-permanent.
Explanation: The connections employs in static RWA are semi-permanent but remain active for a relatively longer period of time. The traffic patterns are known in advance and thus the optimization can be done by assigning network resources to each connection.
Optical Switching Networks
1. Optical switching can be classified into ________ categories.
Explanation: Optical switching is classified into two categories same as that of electronic switching.
The two categories are circuit switching and packet switching.
2. ___________________ are the array of switches which forms circuit switching fabrics.
a) Packet arrays
b) Optical cross connects
c) Circuit arrays
d) Optical networks
Explanation: Optical cross-connects incorporate switching connections or light paths. These larger arrays can switch signals from one port to another.
3. ___________ is an example of a static circuit-switched network.
b) Circuit regenerator
c) Packet resolver
Explanation: The circuit is said to be static when the network resources remain dedicated to the circuit connection. This should be followed during the entire transfer and the complete message follows the same path.
4. What is the main disadvantage of OCS?
a) Regenerating mechanism
b) Optical session
c) Time permit
d) Disability to handle burst traffic
Explanation: In traffic conditions, data is sent in the form of bursts of different lengths. Thus, the resources cannot be readily assigned. The OCS cannot efficiently handle burst traffic.
5. Optical electro-conversions takes place in _________________ networks.
b) Optical packet-switched
c) Optical circuit-switched
Explanation: In an optical packet-switched network, data is transported in the optical domain. This is done without intermediate optic-electrical conversions. Optical electro-conversions takes place in circuit-switched networks.
6. How many functions are performed by an optical packet switch?
Explanation: An optical packet switch performs four basic functions. These include routing, forwarding, switching and buffering.
7. ____________ provides data storage for packets to resolve contention problems.
Explanation: Switching involves directing the packets. Routing provides network connectivity while forwarding and reversing involves defining a packet. Buffering usually provides data storage for packets.
8. What is usually required by a packet to ensure that the data is not overwritten?
c) Guard band
Explanation: A packet consists of a header and the payload. The label points to an entry in the lookup table. A guard band is usually included to ensure the data is not overwritten.
9. Routing technique is faster than the labeling technique. State whether the given statement is true or false.
Explanation: Labeling suggests where the packet should be directed. Routing routes the data in the given direction. Thus, labeling technique is efficient and faster than the routing technique.
10. ______________ provides efficient designation, routing, forwarding, switching of traffic through an optical packet-switched network.
a) Label correlation
b) Multiprotocol label switching
c) Optical correlation
Explanation: Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) was first proposed by CISCO systems. Earlier, it was called as tag switching. MPLS uses labels to forward, switch, designate the traffic.
11. MPLS is independent of layer 2 and 3 in the OSI model. State whether the given statement is true or false.
Explanation: MPLS is flexible in the current protocol landscape. It supports Ethernet, frame relay as a data link layer but is independent of layer 2 and 3 in the OSI model.
12. Which of the following service is provided by Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS)?
a) Data forwarding
Explanation: One of the important services provided by MPLS is IP virtual private networks. All others are provided by packet switched networks. These VPN’s provide a secure, dedicated wide area network (WAN) in order to connect the offices all over the world.
13. Burst header cell is also known as _____________
a) Burst channel
b) Burst header circuit
c) Burst regenerator
d) Burst header packet
Explanation: Burst header cell consists of information regarding switching and destination address. It works with the use of transmission units called as data bursts.
Optical Network Deployment
1. A _________________ is a network connecting several regional or national networks together.
a) Long-haul network
b) Domain network
c) Short-haul network
d) Erbium network
Explanation: Long-haul networks are also called as core or backbone networks. These networks connect regional or national networks together on a large scale. This can be extended to extended long haul networks.
2. What is the range of transmission of extended long haul network?
a) 200-400 km
b) 600-1000 km
c) 1000-2000 km
d) 2000-4000 km
Explanation: Extended long haul networks comprise of DWDM links. The transmission ranges may vary depending upon the complexity of the network. The extended long haul network’s transmission range varies from 1000 to 2000 km.
3. What is the range of transmission of ultra-long haul network?
a) 200-400 km
b) 600-1000 km
c) 1000-2000 km
d) 2000-4000 km
Explanation: Ultra haul networks comprise of DWDM links which provides them maximum range. The transmission ranges may vary depending upon the complexity of the network. The ultra-long haul network’s transmission range varies from 2000 to 4000 km.
4. Which feature plays an important role in making the longer haul networks feasible?
b) Forward error control
c) Backward error control
Explanation: The longer haul networks can be made feasible by improvements in the DWDM systems and using forward error control mechanism. Such networks operate at channel rates in G-bits.
5. Which of the following is not an element of a submerged cable system?
b) Branching unit
c) Gain equalizer
Explanation: The submerged cable system consists of a dry and wet plant. The elements associated with it include a repeater, branching unit, gain equalizer and a line amplifier. Attenuator is not present in cable system.
6. ___________ provides interconnection between the United States and European countries.
Explanation: TAT is abbreviated as transatlantic optical fiber cables. TAT-14 is the newest version which is used as a medium of interconnection between the countries.
7. TAT-14 employs a DWDM bidirectional ring configuration.
Explanation: TAT-14 was first used in the year 2000. Its transmission capacity is more that the previous TAT versions. It’s DWDM configuration enables it to connect the various countries of Europe with the United States.
8. A single fiber in TAT-14 can carry _________ wavelength channels.
Explanation: TAT-14 ‘ s single fiber carries a total of 16 wavelength channels. Each channel can allow a transmission rate of 10 Gigabits. It possesses a high operational capacity.
9. Optical MAN’S are usually structured in _______ topologies.
Explanation: MAN’s are characterized by changing traffic patterns requiring the networks to be fast. Also, MAN must be cost effective in terms of both operation and maintenance. Hence, they are structured in ring topologies.
10. The ________ network is an element of public telecommunication network that connects access nodes to individual users or MAN’s.
Explanation: Access network is usually a last link in the network. It provides the strategies to connect to end-point users on both sides of connection.
11. _____________ is a technique that combines two or more network resources for redundancy or higher throughput.
a) Signal bonding
d) Channel bonding
Explanation: Channel bonding combines two interfaces. It increases the overall bandwidth by the number of channels bonded. The data-rates are similar in this technique.
12. The upstream traffic in EPON is managed by employing a TDM approach.
Explanation: EPON upstream traffic is divided into time slots. The time slots are dedicated to each ONU(Optical network units) in order not to interfere with the data.
1. What is the exception in the similarities between the optical Ethernet and the Ethernet LAN?
a) Physical layer
b) Data-link layer
c) Refractive index
d) Attenuation mechanism
Explanation: Optical Ethernet is similar to the conventional Ethernet LAN with the exception of the physical layer. Physical layer includes the flow of data in the form of binary digits. This transmission takes place on the bit level.
2. Which technology is used by optical Ethernet?
Explanation: Optical Ethernet is the fourth generation of the Ethernet family. The earlier generations include X.25, Frame Relay and ATM. Unlike these technologies, optical Ethernet uses IP-based technology.
3. When was the Gigabit Ethernet network developed?
Explanation: The Gigabit Ethernet (Gbe) network was developed in 1988. It was developed by merging two technologies namely 802.3 Ethernet and ANSI X3T11 fiber channel.
4. Optical Ethernet can operate at the transmission rates as low as ______________
a) 10 M bits per second
b) 40 M bits per second
c) 100 M bits per second
d) 1000 M bits per second
Explanation: Usually, high transmission rates define optical Ethernet. The ITU-T Recommendation specifies the physical layer for optical Ethernet. It can operate at transmission rates as low as 10 M bits per second.
5. How many types of optical Ethernet connections are developed?
Explanation: There are three different types of optical Ethernet connections. They are point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, and multipoint-to-multipoint. Multipoint refers to more number of connections on either side.
6. Which type of connection can be used as an Ethernet switch?
Explanation: The multipoint-to-multipoint configuration refers to the bus, tree or mesh topology. Such a mesh can be made to work as a switching hub with non-blocking switching features. It facilitates switching between different optical Ethernet users.
7. How many aspects are included in the standard Ethernet protocol?
Explanation: Optical Ethernet follows standard Ethernet protocol. This protocol includes four different aspects: Frame, MAC, signaling components and the physical medium.
8. Which of the following is not included in the Ethernet frame format?
c) Destination address
d) Source address
Explanation: The Ethernet frame format includes preamble, destination and source addresses, length, data and the check sequence. MAC is the protocol which is used for sharing the network nodes.
9. The _______________ provides point-to-point access to a bidirectional single-mode optical fiber.
a) Optical regenerator
b) Optical session
c) Optical distribution node
d) Optical buffer
Explanation: The ODN is abbreviated as Optical distribution node. It can access an optical fiber on a point-to-point basis. Thus, a single mode bidirectional optical fiber can be accessed by an Optical distribution node.
10. _______________ is the de-multiplexing technique used to split SONET bandwidth into logical groups.
b) Virtual concatenation
d) Optical breakdown
Explanation: Virtual concatenation (VC) is basically a splitting technique. It can split the SONET bandwidth into groups. These groups may be transported or routed independently.
11. Ethernet switches support multiprotocol label switching.
Explanation: Ethernet switches support multiprotocol label switching. This feature is desired mainly in MAN. The use of such switches in LAN exceeds the network capabilities.
12. Length field in MAC frame ensures that the frame signals stay on the network in order to detect the frame within the correct time limit.
Explanation: MAC frame includes Length field to identify the type or length of the network protocols. The data field is used to ensure that the frame signals stay on the network long enough to detect the frame within the desired limit.
13. The ___________ protocol is not used when the Ethernet connections are configured for a full duplex operation.
Explanation: In Ethernet connections, the full-duplex operation situation may lead to an increased frame dropping rate. The dropped frame cannot be detected without collision. Thus, CSMA protocol is not used in full duplex mode.
14. Optical Ethernet provides switching capabilities in layers ________
a) 1 and 2
b) 2 and 3
c) 3 and 4
d) 1 and 4
Explanation: Layer 2 and 3 are data link and network layers. IP routing is usually considered to be ⅔ switched network. Thus, unlike conventional LAN, optical Ethernet provides switching capabilities between layers 2 and 3.
15. The ______________ approach can provide interconnection among multiple site locations within 40 km range.
a) 3 Gbe
b) 5 Gbe
c) 1 Gbe
d) 10 Gbe
Explanation: The 10Gbe approach uses a 40 km window range. It can be used in LAN’s and MAN. It provides switch-to-switch network within data centers.