Write a comprehensive note on Holy Quran as fundamental source of Islamic Laws?

Table of Contents

(1)  Introduction to Holy Quran

ALLAH has sent His messages to mankind through His , prophets. To reveal His messages, ALLAH has sent some Books and Sahifas. The Holy Quran is one of these Books. All these Books and Sahifas consist of
ALLAH orders. The Holy Quran is the last of these Books, and it reveals
ALLAH messages and orders. In fact, The Holy Quran consists of those direct revelations, which were revealed upon the Holy Prophet for guidance of the whole mankind.

(2)  Holy Quran As The First Source Of Islamic Law

There are three primary sources of Islamic law. Out of these primary sources, Quran is considered as the first primary or fundamental source of Islamic law. The reason is that Holy Quran is not only a complete code of creed and morals, but is also a complete code of laws. In addition to this reason, there are many reasons to believe that Holy Quran is the first primary or fundamental source of Islamic law and these reasons are:

(i)    Messages of ALLAH
(ii)   Interpretation through words of the Holy Prophet
(iii)  Description of laws
(iv)  Everlasting status
(v)   Holy Quran and Ijma
(vi)  Holy Quran and Qiyas
(vii) Holy Quran and Sunnat

(i)  Messages of ALLAH

Holy Quran consists of messages of ALLAH. Due to this reality, Holy Quran is given more importance ever other sources of Islamic law.

(ii) Interpretation through words of the Holy Prophet

The messages, which have been revealed in the Holy Quran, have been interpreted through the words of the Holy Prophet to the mankind. Such interpretation makes the Holy Quran more important over other sources of Islamic law.

(iii)    Description of Laws

In Holy Quran, laws have been described to guide the mankind in all walks of life. This feature of Holy Quran makes it the most important source of Islamic law.

(iv) Ever Lasting Status

ALLAH has laid down this promise that Holy Quran will remain unchanged till last day of this universe. It means that no one can make any change in the Quranic laws. This reality has improved the importance of the Holy Quran as a source of Islamic law.

(v) Holy Quran and Ijma

After Quran and Sunnat, Ijma is to search out solution of any matter. Even those persons, who accept Ijma as a source of Islamic law, prove Ijma through Quran and Hadiths. This reality shows that Quran is the most important source of Islamic law.

(vi) Holy Quran and Qiyas

It had been reported that the Holy Prophet had stated that he used his opinion to make decisions in respect of those matters for which no order had been made in the Holy Quran. It means that the Holy Quran is more important source of Islamic law as compared to Qiyas.

(vii) Holy Quran And Sunnat

The first two primary sources of Islamic law are Holy Quran and Sunnat The relation between Holy Quran and Sunnat is very deep and the same is admitted one. However, Sunnat is considered as second primary source while the Holy Quran is Considered first primary source.

(3)  Basic Rules of Interpretation of Law in the Light of Holy Quran

As far as interpretation of law in the light of Holy Quran is concerned, consideration of following points is very necessary:

a) What laws have been described?
b) How laws have been described?
c) Basic rules of interpretation of law

a)   What Laws Have Been Described?

In respect of different subjects, various laws have been revealed in Holy Quran, and these laws are:

(i)    Rights
(ii)   Punishments
(iii)  Abrogation of immoral customs and usages
(iv)  Social reforms
(v)   Administrative and constitutional matters

(i)  Rights

In Holy Quran, laws have been revealed for protection of rights particularly for protection of rights of minors or. persons, who suffer from some disability.

(ii) Punishments

Holy Quran states some laws in respect of punishment.

iii) Abrogation of Immoral customs and usages

Through revelations made in the Holy Quran, good customs and usages of pre-Islamic Arab were maintained, but immoral customs and usages of that time were abrogated.

(iv) Social Reforms

In Holy Quran, laws have been described to bring about social changes in respect of matters like inheritance, succession, nuptial relations and so on.

(v)    Administrative and constitutional matters

Holy Quran describes laws as far as administrative and constitutional matters are concerned.

b)   How Laws Have Been Described?

At different stages, laws have been described in different Quranic verses in respect of social, economic, commercial, religious, administrative, individual and collective matters.

c)   Basic Principles of Interpretation of Law

The laws, which have been interpreted in the Holy Quran, are unchangeable as these laws enjoy eternity. It is believed that these laws have been interpreted in some different and specific manner. In fact, there are some rules due to which this belief has been made and these rules are:

(i)  Easy observance
(ii) Easy understanding
(iii) Gradual change

(i) Easy Observance

In the Holy Quran, the laws have been described in this manner that it is really very easy for everyone to observe these laws. The reality is that laws have been described in the Holy Quran in this easy manner that their application is not beyond the power of layman.

(ii) Easy Understanding

The laws, which have been described in the Holy Quran, are definite and complete. Therefore, it is very easy for a person to understand them as he/she feels no difficulty in understanding them.

(iii)    Gradual Change

In the Holy Quran, laws have been described in respect of gradual change: there were present immoral customs and usages among the Arabs before Islam. Abrogation of such customs and usages was very necessary to save the mankind from complete anarchy. However, such customs and usages were not abrogated at once, but they were abrogated through a process of gradual change.

(4)  Conclusion

To conclude, it can be stated that Holy Quran consists of such directions and commands of ALLAH , which are indiscriminately same for all portions of human society and all regions of the world. The reality is that no other book has so far provided and interpreted laws in such definite and impartial manner in which the Holy Quran has provided and interpreted the laws. Due to these features and above-mentioned ones, the Holy Quran is considered as first primary or fundamental source of Islamic law.